New Lambton C Pit Protest

The peaceful residential streets of Adamstown today, give no hint of the industrial conflict that nearly boiled over into violence 130 years ago.

In 1888 miners were paid a set price per ton of coal they extracted. Where a coal seam contained thick bands of stony impurities, the miners were effectively paid less, as the same amount of physical labour would win less coal.  The miners of the Newcastle district pressed for the rate to be increased when there was more than 6 inches of impurities. The colliery owners rejected this claim and on 25 August a general strike began. Mining ceased, but the owners wanted to make some money by loading and exporting coal that had previously been brought to the surface. For this work they began using non-union labourers, so called “black-legs”. Opposition to this practice came to a head at New Lambton C Pit, located in Adamstown near present day Clinton Ave.

On Tuesday 18 September, the company sent six men to load coal, accompanied by a force of 30 police officers. Word spread quickly, and over a thousand miners and supporters flocked to the pit to harass the workers and persuade them to desist. Tensions increased and threatened to break out into uncontrolled rioting. Deft handling by police inspector Lynch defused the situation and the day ended with just a single minor injury.

In response, the NSW Governor issued a proclamation that those “interrupting persons in the honest pursuit of their lawful occupation” would be rigorously prosecuted. Military reinforcements were sent from Sydney, and when another attempt to load coal took place two days later, the four “black-legs” who showed up were accompanied by a combined force of 173 police and soldiers who kept the indignant miners at a safe distance.

The show of force had the desired effect and the industrial dispute simmered into stalemate. The strike lasted another two months before agreement was reached, and the miners returned to work on 24 November.

New Lambton C Pit, Thursday 20 September 1888.
Photo by Ralph Snowball, University of Newcastle, Cultural Collections.

The railway to New Lambton C Pit ran adjacent to Bailey St Adamstown.


The article above was first published in the September 2018 edition of The Local.

Additional Information

The Nordenfeldt Gun

The story of the New Lambton C Pit protest has many interesting aspects to it, which for reasons of space I had to omit from the published story above. One example is the involvement of the military and the deployment of a Nordenfeldt gun.

Late on the Tuesday afternoon as the pit disturbance intensified, Sub-inspector Lynch was concerned that he would be unable to safely remove the black-leg workmen from the site using the 30 policemen he had with him. The Daily Telegraph reported that …

“Sub-inspector Lynch accordingly decided to telephone to Newcastle for assistance and he sent the following message to Inspector Brennan —We are surrounded by a thousand men and cannot get the working men off the ground.”

When Brennan received the message …

“… he immediately communicated with the police magistrate, Mr. Mair and Colonel Spalding. A special train was ordered and as soon as possible 25 of the Permanent Artillery with a Nordenfeldt gun, and under Colonel Spalding and Lieutenant Morris, were taken in the train, as well as 27 constables.

By the time the train was under way to the pit the disturbance had ended …

“… and the train to the scene of action passed the one coming from East [sic] Lambton with the coal and the police and laborers.”

On the Thursday when work recommenced at the pit with four black-leg workers, a large contingent of military personnel were again taken out to the pit. The Newcastle Morning Herald reported that …

“The force included eighty-six artillerymen, in command of whom was Colonel Spalding, C.M.G., Lieut.-Colonel Airey, and Lieutenants Morris and Le Mesurier. Lieutenant Morris, who had with him a detachment of the locally-stationed gunners, had charge of a Nordenfeldt gun. This piece of artillery was carried in a goods truck in front of the engine, and the officer and men in charge of it accompanied the weapon.”

Unsurprisingly there was a great deal of concern that a military weapon had been deployed into the middle of an industrial dispute. The Newcastle Morning Herald in an editorial on 20 September 1888 titled “No Nordenfeldt guns wanted” described the gun as …

” … a deadly weapon, which, when in full operation, keeps up a continuous stream of bullets in whatever direction it may be pointed. We understand that this morning a strong reinforcement of the military comes up from Sydney, that the soldiers are to accompany another “small coal” expedition, and that they are to bring up another Nordenfeldt gun with them. We sincerely hope that if they go, they will leave these interesting pieces of death-dealing machinery behind. The democracy of Northumberland is as yet not far enough advanced to regard with equanimity the prospect of being the first in Australia to be experimented on by these interesting specimens of mechanism.”

The Nordenfeldt battery in position at the New Lambton mine. (From a Photograph by Mr. A. Symmons, Newcastle). Illustrated Australian News 13 October 1888, page 177

Nordenfeldt gun at United States Army Ordnance Museum, Aberdeen Proving Grounds MD USA. By en:User:Jetwave Dave [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

The Governor’s Proclamation

After the disturbance at the New Lambton C Pit on 18 October 1888, the next day the following proclamation was issued and published in the Government Gazette by His Excellency the Right Honorable Charles Robert, Baron Carrington, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony of New South Wales …

 “Whereas certain persons have, by combining and acting together, endeavoured to intimidate and oppressively interfere with certain of Her Majesty’s subjects in lawful pursuit of their occupations as workmen in certain of the coal mines in the county of Northumberland and other parts of the colony; and whereas there is every reason to believe that many of the persons, either guilty themselves of such acts of intimidation and unlawful interference, or countenancing the same by various acts of disorderly conduct, have not duly considered the criminal character of their proceedings or the penalties attaching to their illegal acts, while much concern is felt on account of the recent disturbance to a great industry in the county of Northumberland and elsewhere,and the consequent injury and distress which must inevitably fall upon many families and large classes of unoffending persons: it is nevertheless hereby notified that all persons offending as hereinbefore mentioned, or interrupting other persons in the honest pursuit of their lawful occupations by acts of intimidation or violence, or by disorderly conduct of any kind, will be rigorously prosecuted as the law directs.

“And all persons are hereby warned to desist from such unlawful practices, and all subjects of Her Majesty are called upon to render assistance in protecting any persons from outrage or molestation, and in maintain ing law and order.

“And it is further notified that if any attempt is made to interfere with the lawful pursuits of Her Majesty’s peaceful subjects, the most stringent measures will be adopted to maintain law and to afford complete security to all persons engaged in their lawful callings. “By His Excellency’s command, “HENRY PARKES.”

Impurities in the coal seam

The Evening News on 5 September 1888 ran an article explaining the background to the coal miners’ strike, and included a number of diagrams of coal seams around the district that showed bands of impurities within the seam. These impurities had various names such as ‘jerry’, ‘morgan’, and ‘myrtle’.

Borehole Coal Seam

Dating the photos

The University of Newcastle Cultural Collections site has three Ralph Snowball photos of the disturbance at New Lambton C Pit, each dated only as September 1888.

From the newspaper reports we know that Tuesday 18 September 1888 and Thursday 20 September 1888 were the two days when large crowds gathered at the pit to protest the use of non-union labourers, so it is highly probable that the photos are from one or both of those days. After a careful reading of the newspaper accounts of the events of both days, I am reasonably certain that all three photographs are from Thursday 20 September 1888.

In all the accounts there is only one mention of a photographer, where the Newcastle Morning Herald on 21 September reporting on the previous day’s events noted that …

“The monotony of the task of watching the four men at work was somewhat relieved by the entree of a photographer on to the scene for the purpose of taking a series of pictures for a metropolitan illustrated paper. Groups were formed, and the pictures successfully taken.”

In the following photograph, one of the men in the scene is Inspector Martin Brennan. On the Tuesday, Inspector Brennan only arrived at the mine site after 6pm, which in September is after sunset, so this photo must be from Thursday.

Officials at New Lambton C Pit, Adamstown, NSW, 20 September 1888. University of Newcastle, Cultural Collections.

The following photograph shows a line of white helmeted artillery soldiers guarding the mine. On the Tuesday, military support only arrived after 6pm, and once again this suggests this photo is from the Thursday. The picture also aligns well with the report for Thursday that indicates that “the crowd was kept behind the police at the principal entrance, and thus no interference with the blacklegs was allowed or attempted.”

New Lambton C Pit disturbance, Adamstown, NSW, 20 September 1888. University of Newcastle, Cultural Collections.

The following photograph shows a group of miners and family surrounding the workshop at the mine. While this could possibly be from Tuesday, I think its more likely to be Thursday. Firstly note that the crowd is quite orderly, and arranged for a posed photograph. Secondly, there is no evidence of any police officials, or black-leg workmen. This doesn’t correspond well with the events of Tuesday where there the tension and conflict continues all through the day until the workmen and the police leave the site by train at about 6pm, when it would have been quite dark.

In contrast, on the Thursday the black-leg workmen, and the police and soldiers left at about 4:30pm and afterwards it was noted that

“A few privileged stragglers were permitted to enter the sacred precincts of the closely-guarded arena, but everything, with a slight exception, passed off quietly.”
It seems more likely that the posed photograph below was taken late on the Thursday after the workmen and officials had departed. Although it may seem strange to describe the several hundred people in the photo as a “few” stragglers, it is understandable given that the same report earlier stated that the number of protesters that day “must have been considerably over 6000.”

New Lambton C Pit disturbance, Adamstown, NSW, 20 September 1888. University of Newcastle, Cultural Collections.

A map in the National Library of Australia shows the layout of the New Lambton C Pit, and I have marked on the map below the approximate locations where I believe Snowball’s photographs were taken from.

The Australasian (Melbourne) newspaper, on 6 October 1888, printed a number of drawings of the New Lambton C Pit disturbance, seemingly based on Snowball’s photographs.

THE MOB SURROUNDING THE SHOP CONTAINING THE “WORKMEN.”
The Australasian, 6 Oct 1888, p. 13.

Miners watching the “Workmen” at New Lambton. The Australasian, 6 Oct 1888, p. 12.

Militia standing, The New Lambton Pit. The Australasian, 6 Oct 1888, p. 12.

Inspector Martin Brennan

Martin Brennan was born at Kilkenny, Ireland in 1848, and at age 40 was the Inspector of Police in Newcastle at the time of miners’ strike in 1888. The Evening News of 4 October 1888 ran a story on Martin Brennan with some biographical details, and praising his qualities …

At Newcastle he has more than sustained his previous reputation as a firm, discreet, and zealous public officer. The manner in which he has discharged his duties at the present critical juncture has won for him the highest praise, both from the miners and the general public.

The article also contained a line drawing of Inspector Brennan, and from this we may reasonably guess that he appears in one of Snowball’s photographs.

Inspector Martin Brennan.

The Braidwood Times website has a studio photograph of Martin Brennan.

Inspector Martin Brennan.

Although his face looks more round in the Ralph Snowball photo, I think the roundness is exaggerated by the low resolution and the cap. When you snip the cap from the pit photo and place it on the studio photo, the resemblance is reasonably clear.

In an article from 17 September 1904 on his promotion to Superintendent, First Class, it is noted that  Brennan …

“… was promoted to Newcastle in 1886, as Inspector where he remained for about seven years. His duties there during the great coal and maritime strikes of 1888 were onerous and responsible ; nevertheless, he, with Sub-Inspector Lynch’s assistance, discharged them in such a manner as to merit the approbation of mine-owners and miners, as well as the public generally.”

Martin Brennan retired from the police force in January 1907 after 48 years of service, at the time a record exceeded only by his brother Patrick. Martin Brennan died in St Vincent’s Hospital Sydney on 8 August 1912, aged 73.

Newspaper articles

Article Date Event DateNotes
25 Aug 1888"For some weeks past the general strike of coal-miners which has impended over this district has been the main topic of public interest … The strike is now an accomplished fact, the men employed in some pits of the district having taken out their mining gear yesterday, while the remainder will follow the same course on Monday."
30 Aug 1888Manifesto of the Amalgamated Miners' Association, in which they state that their chief grievance is "the attempt of the proprietors to compel the men to work and throw back rubbish from among the coal for nothing, or, in other words, to do additional work without increase of pay."
5 Sep 1888An explanation of the coalminers' dispute about impurities in the coal seam, including diagrams of coal seams from Fernadale, South Waratah and Borehole collieries.
19 Sep 1888
18 Sep 1888
Lengthy report on the disturbance at New Lambton C Pit where 6 "black legs" (strike breakers) were loading small coal, an up to a thousand miner's and their families arrived at the mine to protest.
19 Sep 1888
18 Sep 1888
Sydney Morning Herald's report of the riot at New Lambton C Pit.
19 Sep 1888
18 Sep 1888
The Daily Telegraph's report of the disturbance at New Lambton C Pit
19 Sep 1888Editorial opinion on the disturbance at New Lambton C Pit the previous day.
20 Sep 1888
19 Sep 1888
Three men arrested and charged "that they did, at the New Lambton pit, near Adamstown, together with divers other evil-disposed persons unknown, assemble to disturb the public peace, and did then and there make a great riot and disturbance, to the terror and alarm of Her Majesty's subjects there being."
20 Sep 1888
19 Sep 1888
Protest moves on to South Waratah pit, where over 1000 people gather.
20 Sep 1888"It is given as authoritative that another attempt to complete the loading of small coal at the New Lambton "C " pit will be resumed this morning. Matters in this vicinity bear a very serious aspect."
20 Sep 1888Editor's plea to miners and management to resolve the dispute peacably. "We are glad to know that strenuous efforts are being made by several gentlemen to formulate an agreement which will be acceptable to both Associated Proprietors and Associated Miners; and it is high time that the difficult task should be worked at, night and day, until the breaches between capital and labour in the district shall have been closed."
20 Sep 1888"Intelligence was received in Newcastle last night that 100 members of the Permanent Force had left Sydney by steamer for Newcastle last night. Colonel Spalding, C.M.G., will take command of the whole of the forces in the district."
21 Sep 1888
20 Sep 1888
Filling of small coal at New Lambton C pit by four 'black legs' workmen, protected by a a total force of 173 artillerymen and policemen, along with a Nordenfeldt battery gun.
20 Sep 1888Proclamation by the Governor of New South Wales, Charles Robert, calling for law and order to be maintained in the coal miners' dispute.
"It is hereby notified that all persons offending as hereinbefore mentioned, or interrupting other persons in the honest pursuit of their lawful occupations by acts of intimidation or violence, or by disorderly conduct of any kind, will be rigorously prosecuted as the law directs."
20 Sep 1888A call from the Newcastle Morning Herald for the government to refrain from bringing the Nordenfeldt guns into the miners' dispute. The gun is described as "a deadly weapon, which, when in full operation, keeps up a continuous stream of bullets in whatever direction it may be pointed."
22 Sep 1888All quiet at New Lambton C pit on Friday. There is an interesting suggestion that Thursday's action was intended as a show of force by the police authorites.
"It is stated that no more 'blacklegs' will be brought to New Lambton, and that they would not have been brought back on Thursday had it not been that the police authorities wanted satisfaction."
4 Oct 1888A biographical article on Inspector Martin Brennan, was the chief of the local police in Newcastle at the time of the New Lambton C Pit disturbance.
24 Nov 1888Resumption of work after the strike … "To-day all the collieries in the district, with the exception of South Waratah and New Lambton, were at work."
24 Nov 1888The coal strike "has been finally settled by the vote of the miners throughout the district, who by a large majority decided in favour of resuming work immediately as proposed by the Delegate Board."
11 Aug 1912
8 Aug 1912
Death of Inspector Martin Brennan.
8 Aug 1912
8 Aug 1912
Death of Inspector Martin Brennan.

Homecoming

My latest article for The Local has been published, this month on the the homecoming to Lambton in 1902 of Lieutenant Albert McEwan from the Boer War.

At first glance this Ralph Snowball photograph appears to be a plain snapshot of Elder Street in Lambton, and the University Flickr site has the photo simply captioned as “E. Bell, Bootmaker”. But a little digging into the background of this photograph revealed an intriguing family history of immigration, tragedy and war, that spanned three continents and several decades.

14 April 1902 – A decorated Elder St in readiness for the torchlight parade to honour Lieutenant McEwan later that evening. University of Newcastle, Cultural Collections.

Albert Henry McEwan

It was reported as “the largest demonstration that had ever been held at Lambton” with the crowd numbered “upwards of 2000.” The occasion was the return to Lambton of Lieutenant Albert Henry McEwan from the South African Boer War.

Albert was born in Lambton around 1877 where his father John worked as a miner. In the 1890s a downturn in the coal trade induced many to leave the area and seek work elsewhere. In October 1895, John along with his eldest son Albert, still a teenager, headed to the booming gold fields of South Africa. Both father and son quickly found employment in the “Simmer and Jack” mine at Johannesburg.

Within a year John was tragically killed in a mining accident. Albert stayed on and rose to a responsible position in the mine. When war broke out in 1899 between the British and the Boers, he joined the Imperial Light Horse and was soon engaged in a number of battles. Describing these in letters home to Lambton, he wrote with patriotic bravado but also noted “the appalling sights of a battlefield are simply terrible”. In 1901 Albert was shot in the leg. He was treated in South Africa, before being taken to Netley hospital in England where his leg was amputated.

Albert returned to Australia and arrived back in Lambton in the afternoon of 14 April 1902. At 7pm a torchlight procession marched down a gaily-decorated Elder St to Bell’s Hall at the corner Morehead St. “At every corner the returned soldier was greeted with loud cheers.” He made an appearance on the balcony and addressed the crowd in the street below, before being entertained at a banquet in his honour.

Ralph Snowball’s photograph from this day is not only a snapshot of the streetscape of Lambton in 1902, but also an indication of the colonial fervour for the British Empire that would propel many more Lambton boys to the fields of the Great War in Europe 12 years later.

14 April 1902 – A decorated Elder St in readiness for the torchlight parade to honour Lieutenant McEwan later that evening. University of Newcastle, Cultural Collections.


The article above was first published in the August 2018 edition of The Local.

Additional Information

Mine work in South Africa

In the newspaper article on 14 February 1902 reporting his wounding, it is noted that Albert McEwan was …

“a native of Lambton, and the eldest son of the late John McEwan, and went to South Africa about six years ago. When war was declared he held a responsible position as first amalgamator for one of the largest mines in the Rand.”

A 1918 US Government publication describes the the job of an amalgamator …

The amalgamator at gold mines prepares amalgamation plates to receive the gold-bearing pulp from stamps. He regulates the flow of water and ore, and at regular intervals collects the mercury-gold amalgam from the mortar, sluices, and plates.

Military service

The National Archives( London, England), has scanned the nominal rolls for the Imperial Light Horse Brigade, which contains an entry for Albert Henry McEwan.

The entry shows …

  • Regimental No: 319
  • Name: McEwan, Albert Henry
  • Regiment: 1st
  • Rank: Cpl (Corporal)
  • Place attested, date: PMB (Pietermaritzbug), 25/09/1899
  • Discharged: Supernumerary awarded pension

His enlistment date of 25 September 1899 was some two weeks before the Boer Republics declared war on 11 October 1899.

A search for “A McEwan” on the Anglo Boer War website shows that the South African Field Force Casualty Roll recorded Corporal McEwan as “Severely wounded. Naauwpoort, 5 January 1901″

Newspaper articles

Article Date Event DateNotes
30 Oct 1895
28 Oct 1895
"On Monday night a large crowd of residents gathered at the tram stopping place to witness the departure of Messrs. Jos. W. Oldham and John McEwan and son for Johannesberg, South Africa."
"Other well known residents … also leave their homes this week for Western Australia, slackness of work resulting in this step."
3 Dec 1896
19 Oct 1896
"A communication was received yesterday from Mr. Joseph Oldham, of Simmer and Jack (South Africa), conveying the sad news that his friend and brother-in-law, Mr. John McEwan, had died on the 19th of October from the effects of an accident in one of the mines. It appears that the deceased was with two other men, engaged in timbering a shaft, and that in endeavouring to cross the shaft he slipped from a plank they had for a stage, and fell a distance of 60ft."
13 Dec 1899"Trooper Albert McEwan, of the Imperial Light Horse, now in active service at the front in Natal" writes to his mother at Lambton.
" … you see I can call myself a thorough soldier, having fought against the Dutch in two battles — Elands Laage and Umgaani."
"The appalling sights of a battle field are simply terrible. You read about such affairs in books, but seeing such sights is fearful."
28 May 1900Letter from Trooper Albert H. McEwan, of the Imperial Light Horse to his brother William in Lambton.
14 Feb 1901
5 Jan 1901
"Mrs. McEwan, of Lambton, has received word from Major Rodgers, the officer commanding the Imperial Light Horse depot, Johannesburg, that her son, Sergeant A. H. McEwan, had been dangerously wounded at Fredrickstand, in a severe engagement with a Boer commando under De La Rey."
15 Feb 1902
14 Apr 1902
Celebrations marking the return of Lietenant Albert McEwan to Lambton after serving in the Boer War.
15 Apr 1902
14 Apr 1902
The Daily Telegraph in Sydney reported that "Lieutenant A. H. McEwan returned to his home at Lambton yesterday, after an absence of many years, and was accorded an enthusiastic, reception both at Newcastle and in his native suburb."
5 Apr 1941
22 Mar 1941
Death of Albert Henry McEwan in Adelaide, aged 64.

Peacock’s Corner

These days ownership of property can change regularly, but in Lambton’s early days it was not uncommon for properties to be owned by the same person or family for decades. Sometimes localities within a suburb became known, not by street names, but by property owner names. One such case is “Peacock’s Corner”, with a number of newspaper articles in the 1870s referring to this location where John Peacock dwelt.

John Peacock was a miner, who was living in Lambton from at least 1869.  From various newspaper reports we know that his house was built on the Commonage (Newcastle Pasturage Reserve), between Dickson and Young Roads.

Peacock’s dwelling was located on portion 810 of the Commonage, adjacent to the courthouse. In 1890 the land court refused his application to purchase of this portion, instead granting him the right to purchase portion 759 on the opposite side of Young Rd.

In an 1873 sale advertisement, Peacock’s house is described as brick built dwelling containing six rooms, one half of which was let at 4s. per week. It seems that no sale eventuated, and Peacock remained in the house. In 1877 a new Courthouse was built on land adjacent to his dwelling, and there was some contention as to whether he would need to be removed from the site. In 1880 at the instigation of the Bench of Magistrates, the Lands Department wrote to John Peacock ordering him to remove from the site within six months.

“It appearing from the report of Mr. District Surveyor Evans that you have erected improvements upon portions of No. 13, and part of 14, of section 1, within the Newcastle Pasturage Reserve, I am directed to inform you that you are in illegal occupation of the land and that it will be necessary for you to remove within six months from this date whatever improvements you may have erected thereon, as it forms part of the area recently approved of as an addition to the Court House site at Lambton.”

Section 1 of the Newcastle Pasturage Reserve, between Young St and Dickson St.

Ninian Melville M.L.A. the local member for Northumberland intervened, making representations to the Lands Department, and John Peacock was allowed to remain on the site. In 1887 Peacock once again advertised the sale of his house. At this time it was described as a 13 room family residence with nearly a quarter acre of land. However, given the legal uncertainties of ownership of property on the Commonage, it appears that no sale eventuated.

Just two years later John Peacock’s situation was dire. The Lambton Miners’ committee heard that …

“the old gentleman was suffering from want of food. Peacock had got work at Lambton to fill small coal, but his health failed him. On being visited by the officers they found that it was a very distressing case. Mr. N Elliott, the butcher, provided him with meat, but he had not bread in the house.”

The Miners’ Committee organised a charity raffle to assist Peacock, and they reported in June 1889 that they had “secured £10 6s for the old gentleman by the raffle.”

The following year, in 1890, the Government finally resolved the question of property ownership on the Commonage.  The Government allowed people who had built upon or made improvements to land on the Commonage, to make application to purchase and obtain legal title to the land. On 30 July 1890, on the 13th sitting day of the Land Court deliberating on these applications, it was noted that …

“The application of John Peacock, for portion 810, was refused, as the land was required in the public interest; but the board found that the applicant was entitled to come under the provisions of the Act, and they accordingly recommended that he should be allowed to select some other portion.”

The Government Gazette of 30 December 1890 shows that Peacock was successful in applying for portion 759 (on the opposite side of Young Rd), with an area of 21 and half perches (about one eighth of an acre), for a purchase price of £35 8s.

Whether he ever obtained portion 759 or made use of it is unclear, as John Peacock passed away just 18 months later in June 1892, and his house and meagre remaining possessions were put up for public auction on 15 July 1892. By September 1892 the house had been pulled down and removed from the Police Reserve on portion 810.

“Peacock’s Corner” in 2018 – the area bounded by Newcastle Rd, Lloyd Rd, and Dickson St Lambton.

 

Newspaper articles

Article Date Event DateNotes
16 Jan 1869"John Peacock, of Lambton, appeared, on summons, to answer the complaint of Edward Keepe, for assaulting and beating him, on the 9th instant."
17 Oct 1871Lambton Council recommends that the surveyor "be instructed to continue the line of main road from Dark Creek along the line of Mr. D. Jones's property and the Lambton and Waratah Coal Company's property, through Young-street to near the back of Mr. John Peacock's dwelling, forming the junction with the lower and upper crossing. "
30 Dec 1871"One of the miners working at the Waratah new tunnels, an old man named John Peacock, was rather badly hurt by a fall of coal hitting him on Friday last, lacerating his back and right leg, and otherwise shaking him; however, no bones were broken; and under the skilful treatment of Dr. Hill and his assistant, it is hoped he will rapidly mend."
27 Jan 1872A public meeting held in Lambton "near John Peacock's dwelling" for the purpose of nominating aldermen.
7 Sep 1872
4 Sep 1872
"In pursuance of an advertisement in the local papers, a well attended public meeting was held on Wednesday night last, in the open-air, near Mr. John Peacock's dwelling, on the Commonage, between Waratah and Lambton. "
"The proceedings were orderly and well conducted, with the exception that a few, urchins of pit boys created some annoyance by throwing stones and half bricks upon the zinc roof of Mr. Peacock's dwelling, making a great noise as they rolled down."
13 Mar 1873
9 Mar 1873
A motion in Lambton Council "that Dixon-street be stumped, cleared, guttered and formed, and made passable from Morehead-street midway between Mr. Peacock's and Jefferson's."
29 Mar 1873
25 Mar 1873
In a Lambton Council meeting, reference is made to proposed "improvements in the track at the east end of Dixon street to beyond Peacock's dwelling".
24 May 1873"THE undersigned being about to leave the neighbourhood, offers FOR SALE the Brick built DWELLING, on the Pasturage Reserve, known as Peacock's, containing six rooms, one half of which is now let at 4s. per week. The property is centrally situated, and near the thriving town of Lambton. Apply to JOHN PEACOCK, Lambton Commonage."
18 Apr 1874The original route for the main road is described: "This road was to pass the Assembly Rooms, Wallssend, by the saw-mills, Dark Creek, and Broom's Hotel, leaving Peacock's corner on the right, and go straight across the neutral ground, to the termination of the Hamilton branch of the Newcastle road, near Cameron's."
2 May 1874At a public meeting discussing the proposed main road, Mr Morgan says that "The new road would not hurt the old one, and would pass near Peacock's corner."
6 May 1874Thomas Croudace describes the proposed nothern route of the main road from Newcastle to Wallsend as going "across the New Lambton and Lambton railways, between the old Dog and Rat Pit, and New Lambton Smelting Works, to the ridge whereon old Peacock lives."
5 Dec 1874
30 Nov 1874
"A meeting of persons favourable to the re-election of Mr. Hannell as member for the county, was held at Peacock's corner, on the Commonage."
25 Feb 1875"Court-house and Lockup. — The new building is to occupy a site near Peacock's corner, and facing one of the cross streets."
22 Jan 1877"The new court house and lock up is to be erected on the Commonage, near to Peacock's place, facing to the East. I am in formed that the whole of the land in front, between the two roads, is to be reserved, and planted with shrubery, &c. If this is so, it will cause the removal of the extensive buildings erected by John Peacock, which will be a serious matter to him."
10 Feb 1877"TO SELL, OR LET BY TENDER. A FOURTEEN-ROOMED BRICK HOUSE. The above premises is situated on the Commonage, adjoining the New Court-house ground, Lambton. A RARE CHANCE for a Family Hotel, or General Store. For further information, apply to JOHN PEACOCK, On the Premises."
27 Jul 1878In describing the area of the proposed Lambton recreation ground (now Lambton Park), the north-east corner is described as being at "the extension of Elder-street on the north, and the Main Road running from the railway crossing to Peacock's corner on the east." The railway crossing was where Lambton Road crossed the Waratah Coal Company's railway, and was known as "Betty Bunn's Crossing."
25 Dec 1880
30 Sep 1880
Letter from the Lands department gives John Peacock 6 months to remove his buildings from the commonage. "It appearing from the report of Mr. District Surveyor Evans that you have erected improvements upon portions of No. 13, and part of 14, of section 1, within the Newcastle Pasturage Reserve, I am directed to inform you that you are in illegal occupation of the land and that it will be necessary for you to remove within six months from this date whatever improvements you may have erected thereon, as it forms part of the area recently approved of as an addition to the Court House site at Lambton."
3 Feb 1881Mr J. McWilliams, a candidate for council elections, "contended that John Peacock's house was no detriment to the Court House."
20 Jun 1881"Personal. IF this should meet the eye of JANE PEACOCK, my daughter (last heard of in Ballarat, Victoria), or of CHRISTINA PATERSON, they are requested to write to me. JOHN PEACOCK, Commonage, Lambton."
10 Mar 1885Mr. N. MELVIILLE M.L.A. "referred to the attempt that had been made to remove his very good friend Mr. John Peacock off the Commonage and which he had prevented at a cost to the country of some twenty three shillings for telegrams (Laughter)."
21 Mar 1885Thomas Griffiths arrested for being drunk and disrorderly and "shortly after placed on garrison duty in the fortress near Peacock's corner." This is a semi-humorous reference to being placed in the police lock-up behind the Lambton courthouse.
25 Jan 1887John Peacock considers running for Lambton Council, but in the end doesn't nominate.
26 Feb 1887FOR SALE: "FAMILY RESIDENCE, With nearly a quarter acre of Land, known as Peacock's Property, situated in Dixon and Young streets, Lambton, close to the Court-house, containing 13 Rooms, Outhouses, Stables, &c., with a never-failing supply of water. The property is suitable for an Hotel or Boarding-house, and plenty of room to build two or three houses more."
27 Mar 1889
25 Mar 1889
The Lambton Miners' Committee has their attention drawn to John Peacock's state… "and that it was reported that the old gentleman was suffering from want of food. Peacock had got work at Lambton to fill small coal, but his health failed him. On being visited by the officers they found that it was a very distressing case. Mr. N Elliott, the butcher, provided him with meat, but he had not bread in the house."
3 Jun 1889
29 May 1889
The Lambton Miners' committee "recommends the lodge to pay all expenses in connection with John Peacock's raffle which amounts to 13s 6d." The chairman stated that the committee secured £10 6s for the old gentleman by the raffle."
31 Jul 1890In the sitting of the land court to determine the granting of land on the Commonage: "The application of John Peacock, for portion 810, was refused, as the land was required in the public interest; but the board found that the applicant was entitled to come under the provisions of the Act, and they accordingly recommended that he should be allowed to select some other portion."
30 Dec 1890Government Gazette shows that portion 759 of the Commonage, with an area of 21 and half perches, has been granted to John Peacock, for a purchase price of £35 8s.
6 Jun 1892The funeral of "JOHN PEACOCK: To move from his late residence, near the Courthouse, Lambton, THIS (Monday) AFTERNOON, at 3 o'clock, for Wallsend Cemetery."
21 Jun 1892
20 Jun 1892
After a fire destroys the home of Mrs. Webster, on Young Rd at the rear of the courthouse, Sergeant Salter "very kindly provided shelter and bedding for the unfortunate family in the vacant house of the late John Peacock, on the police reserve."
15 Jul 1892Public auction of the estate of John Peacock. In addtion to furniture, the auction included ...
"BRICK TENEMENT, with Iron Roofing, and quantity of loose Bricks, situate at Lambton, near Courthouse; same to be removed off land at Sale."
15 Sep 1892In a Lambton Council meeting "Alderman CONN called attention to a dangerous underground tank on the Police Court Reserve, left after the late J. Peacock's house was pulled down."